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EquiSync: Scientific Studies & Research – EOC Institute

EquiSync: Scientific Studies & Research

EquiSync's design is based on the 100's of studies showing the effectiveness of brainwave entrainment technology, and 1000's of studies showing the powerful benefits of meditation. If you are interested in better understanding the power of this technology and rapidly expanding field of research, then here is a very abbreviated bibliography, a very small sample of the studies out there:

Wahbeh H, Calabrese C, Zwickey H (2007). "Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects". Journal of alternative and complementary medicine(New York, N.Y.) 13 (1): 25 - 32. doi:10.1089/acm.2006.6196.

Orozco Perez, H. D., Dumas, G., & Lehmann, A. (2020) Binaural Beats through the Auditory Pathway: From Brainstem to Connectivity Patterns. eNeuro, 7(2), ENEURO.0232-19.2020. McMaster University

Le Scouarnec RP, Poirier RM, et al. (2001). "Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes". Alternative Therapy Health Medicine. 7 (1): 58-63.

Gaynor, Md., M.L. (2002) The Healing Power of Sound. (Shambhala Publications)

Davidson, R., Kabat-Zinn J., et al. (2003) Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation. Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine. 65:564-570.

Lazar S, Kerr C, Wasserman R, Gray J., (2005) Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport. 16(17): 1893 - 1897.

Vera Abeln et al (2014) Brainwave entrainment for better sleep and post-sleep state of young elite soccer players – A pilot study. European Journal of Sport Science, 14:5, 393-402, DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2013.819384

F. R. On, R. Jailani, H. Norhazman and N. M. Zaini (2013) Binaural beat effect on brainwaves based on EEG 2013 IEEE 9th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications pp. 339-343, doi: 10.1109/CSPA.2013.6530068.

A. Gupta et al (2016) Significance of alpha brainwaves in meditation examined from the study of binaural beats International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication (ICSC) pp. 484-489, doi: 10.1109 /ICSPCom.2016.7980629.

Bernhard Hommel, Roberta Sellaro, Rico Fischer, Saskia Borg and Lorenza S. Colzato (2016) High-Frequency Binaural Beats Increase Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from Dual-Task Crosstalk Front. Psychol., 24 August 2016 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01287

Zampi, Donna D. et al (2015) Efficacy of Theta-Binaural Beats for the Treatment of Chronic Pain Northcentral University. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing 3670283

Tirdad Seifi et al (2017) Cumulative effects of theta binaural beats on brain power and functional connectivity Biomedical Signal Processing and Control Volume 42, April 2018, Pages 242-252

Beauchene C, Abaid N, Moran R, Diana RA, Leonessa A (2016) The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity PLOS ONE 11(11): e0166630. 10.1371/journal.pone.0166630

Karino S., Yumoto M., et al. (2006) Neuromagnetic Responses to Binaural Beat in Human Cerebral Cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology. 96. 1927-38.

Reddi V., (2002) Effect of Binaural Beat Stimulation on Pain and Mood in Individuals Reporting Chronic Low Back Pain. Moore Health Science Library, University of Virginia.

Cahn BR, Polich J., (2006) Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin. Vol 132(2) 180-211.

Barnhofer, T, Chittka T, et al., (2009) State Effects of Two Forms of Meditation on Prefrontal EEG Asymmetry in Previously Depressed Individuals. Mindfulness. Vol. 1-1, 21-27.

Brefczynski-Lewis J, Lutz A,. (2007) Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences.vol. 104-27.

Oman D, Shapiro S, et al., (2008). Meditation Lowers Stress and Supports Forgiveness Among College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of American College Health, Volume 56, Number 5, 569 - 578

Moore A., Malinowski P. (2009) Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18 (1), pp. 176-186.

Chuter E., Allan M., Laws D. (2007) A pilot study comparing reduction of anxiety by binaural beat audio and patient-selected music in the pre-operative period. Anaesthesia. 62, 3 310.

Stevens L et al., (2003) Binaural beat induced theta EEG activity and hypnotic susceptibility: contradictory results and technical considerations. The American Journal Clinical Hypnosis45(4):295-309.

Brady B., (2000) Binaural-beat induced theta EEG activity and hypnotic susceptibility. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis.

Klepp S., (2005) Effects of Binaural-beat Stimulation on Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine.

Kennerly, R., (2004) QEEG analysis of binaural beat audio entrainment: A pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy

Lo P, Leu J, Quantification of pseudo-periodicity of alpha rhythm in meditation EEG. Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, Vol 25, No 1.

Takahashi T, Murata T,et al., (2005) Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous activity during meditation and their association with personality traits. International Journal of Psychophysiology. Vol.55-2, 199-207.

Lagopoulos J, Xu J, Rasmussen I, et al., (2009) Increased theta and alpha EEG activity during nondirective meditation. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.15(11): 1187-1192.

Aftanas L., Golosheykin S., (2005) Impact of regular meditation practice on eeg activity at rest and during evoked negative emotions. International Journal of Neuroscience.

Chiesa A., Serretti A., (2010) A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychological Medicine. 40: 1239-1252.

Aftanas L., Golocheikine S., (2001) Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive state and internalized attention: high-resolution EEG investigation of meditation.Neuroscience Letters. Vol. 310- 1, 7 57-60.

Lehmann d., Faber P.L., Achermann P., et al., (2001) Brain sources of EEG gamma frequency during volitionally meditation-induced, altered states of consciousness, and experience of the self. Psychiatry Research & Neuroimaging. Vol.108-2, 111-121.

Baijal S., Narayanan S., (2010) Theta activity and meditative states: spectral changes during concentrative meditation. Cognitive Processing. Vol.11-1, 31-38.

Barnhofer, T., Duggan, D., Crane, C., et al., (2007) Effects of meditation on frontal [alpha]-asymmetry in previously suicidal individuals. Neuroreport. Vol.18, Issue 7, 709-712.

Fell J., Axmacher N., Haupt S., (2010) From alpha to gamma: Electrophysiological correlates of meditation-related states of consciousness. Medical Hypotheses. Vol.75, Issue 2, P.218-224.

Tang Y., Ma Y., Wang J., Yaxin F., et al., (2007) Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences.vol. 104-43.

Lutz A, Brefczynski-Lewis J, Johnstone T, Davidson R., (2008) Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise. PLOS One.3(3): e1897. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001897

S Jain, SL Shapiro, et al., (2007) A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral MedicineVolume 33, Number 1, 11-21

Farb N., Segal., et al., (2007) Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience.Volume 2, Issue 4. 313-322.

G Pagnoni, M Cekic, (2007) Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation. - Neurobiology of aging. 28-10 1623-1627.

Zautra A., Davis M., et al., (2008) Comparison of Cognitive Behavioral and Mindfulness Meditation Interventions on Adaptation to Rheumatoid Arthritis for Patients With and Without History of Recurrent Depression.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Volume 76, Issue 3, June 2008, Pages 408-421

SE Sephton, P Salmon, I Weissbecker, C, (2007). Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in women with fibromyalgia: results of a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Care & ResearchVolume 57, Issue 1, pages 77 - 85.

Bowen S., Witkiewitz K., et al., (2006). Mindfulness Meditation and Substance Use in an Incarcerated Population. sychology of Habitual Behaviors. American Psychological Association2006, Vol. 20, No. 3, 343 - 347.

Zylowska L., Ackerman D., (2007). Mindfulness Meditation Training in Adults and Adolescents With ADHD: A Feasibility Study. Journal of Attention Disorders.

Carter, Olivia L. Presti, D., et al., (2005) Meditation alters perceptual rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist monks. Current Biology, 15 (11).

Kosycki D., Benger M., et al., (2007). Randomized trial of a meditation-based stress reduction program and cognitive behavior therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy. Vol. 45-10, 2518-2526.

S Settapat, M Ohkura, (2008) An Alpha-wave-based binaural beat sound control system using fuzzy logic and autoregressive forecasting model. SICE Annual Conference. 20-22, 109-114

Tang Y, Yinghua M., et al., (2009). Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation. PNAS. 106-22 8865-8870.

Davidson, R., Lutz, A., (2008). Buddha's Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation [In the Spotlight]. Signal Processing Magazine. 25-1 176-174

Epel E., et al., (2009). Can Meditation Slow Rate of Cellular Aging? Cognitive Stress, Mindfulness, and Telomeres. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 1172, 34�53

Pace, T., Negi L., (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. PsychoneuroendocrinologyVolume 34-1. 87-98.

Tavee and Stone. (2010) Healing the mind: Meditation and multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 75: 1130-1131

Wenk S., (2005). Meditation can reduce habitual responding. Alternative Therapy Health Medicine. 11(2): 42-58

Empson, J. (1986). Human Brainwaves: The Psychological Significance of the Electroencephalogram. (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.)

Etnier, J. L., Whitwer, S. S., Landers, D. M., Petruzzello, S. J., & Salazar, H. M. (1996) Changes in electroencephalographic activity associated with learning a novel motor task. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 67(3), 272-287.

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